​​​​​​​FEATURED CAREERS IN STEM

Allergists and Immunologists​

Diagnose, treat, and help prevent allergic diseases and disease processes affecting the immune system.​​​​​

Sample of reported job titles: Allergist; Allergist/Immunologist; Allergist/Immunologist, Physician; Allergist/MD; Allergist/Pediatric Pulmonologist; Allergy and Immunology Specialist; Allergy Physician; MD Pediatric Allergist; Physician; Physician, Owner of Independent Medical Practice

Tasks

  • Diagnose or treat allergic or immunologic conditions.
  • Order or perform diagnostic tests such as skin pricks and intradermal, patch, or delayed hypersensitivity tests.
  • Educate patients about diagnoses, prognoses, or treatments.
  • Develop individualized treatment plans for patients, considering patient preferences, clinical data, or the risks and benefits of therapies.
  • Prescribe medication such as antihistamines, antibiotics, and nasal, oral, topical, or inhaled glucocorticosteroids.​

Education​Most of these occupations require graduate school. For example, they may require a master's degree, and some require a Ph.D., M.D., or J.D. (law degree).
Related ExperienceExtensive skill, knowledge, and experience are needed for these occupations. Many require more than five years of experience. For example, surgeons must complete four years of college and an additional five to seven years of specialized medical training to be able to do their job.
Job TrainingEmployees may need some on-the-job training, but most of these occupations assume that the person will already have the required skills, knowledge, work-related experience, and/or training.
Job Zone ExamplesThese occupations often involve coordinating, training, supervising, or managing the activities of others to accomplish goals. Very advanced communication and organizational skills are required. Examples include librarians, lawyers, astronomers, biologists, clergy, surgeons, and veterinarians.​

Biomedical Engineer 

Develop usable, tangible products, using knowledge of biology, chemistry, or engineering. Solve problems related to materials, systems, or processes that interact with humans, plants, animals, microorganisms, or biological materials.​

Sample of reported job titles: Engineering Director, Process Engineer, Research Associate, Research Engineer, Research Fellow, Research Greenhouse Supervisor, Research Scientist, University Extension Specialist

Tasks

  • Maintain databases of experiment characteristics or results.
  • Read current scientific or trade literature to stay abreast of scientific, industrial, or technological advances.
  • Develop methodologies for transferring procedures or biological processes from laboratories to commercial-scale manufacturing production.
  • Prepare technical reports, data summary documents, or research articles for scientific publication, regulatory submissions, or patent applications.
  • Devise scalable recovery, purification, or fermentation processes for producing proteins or other biological substances for human or animal therapeutic use, food production or processing, biofuels, or effluent treatment.

Education ​​​
 Most of these occupations require a four-year bachelor's degree, but some do not.
Related Experience ​​​​A considerable amount of work-related skill, knowledge, or experience is needed for these occupations. For example, an accountan​t must complete four years of college and work for several years in accounting to be considered qualified.
Job Training​Employees in these occupations usually need several years of work-related experience, on-the-job training, and/or vocational training.​
Job Zone ​Many of these occupations involve coordinating, supervising, managing, or training others. Examples include accountants, sales managers, database administrators, graphic designers, chemists, art directors, and cost estimators.​


Civil Engineer

Perform engineering duties in planning, designing, and overseeing construction and maintenance of building structures, and facilities, such as roads, railroads, airports, bridges, harbors, channels, dams, irrigation projects, pipelines, power plants, and water and sewage systems.​

Sample of reported job titles: Bridge/Structure Inspection Team Leader, City Engineer, Civil Engineer, Civil Engineering Manager, County Engineer, Design Engineer, Project Engineer, Railroad Design Consultant, Structural Engineer, Traffic Engineer

Tasks

  • Inspect project sites to monitor progress and ensure conformance to design specifications and safety or sanitation standards.
  • Compute load and grade requirements, water flow rates, or material stress factors to determine design specifications.
  • Provide technical advice to industrial or managerial personnel regarding design, construction, or program modifications or structural repairs.
  • Test soils or materials to determine the adequacy and strength of foundations, concrete, asphalt, or steel.
  • Manage and direct the construction, operations, or maintenance activities at project site.

Education​Most of these occupations require a four-year bachelor's degree, but some do not.​
Related ExperienceA considerable amount of work-related skill, knowledge, or experience is needed for these occupations. For example, an accountant must complete four years of college and work for several years in accounting to be considered qualified.​
Job TrainingEmployees in these occupations usually need several years of work-related experience, on-the-job training, and/or vocational training.​
Job Zone ExamplesMany of these occupations involve coordinating, supervising, managing, or training others. Examples include accountants, sales managers, database administrators, graphic designers, chemists, art directors, and cost estimators.​

Dietitians and Nutritionists​

Plan and conduct food service or nutritional programs to assist in the promotion of health and control of disease. May supervise activities of a department providing quantity food services, counsel individuals, or conduct nutritional research.

Sample of reported job titles: Clinical Dietician, Clinical Dietitian, Correctional Food Service Supervisor, Dietary Manager, Dietitian, Nutritionist, Outpatient Dietitian, Pediatric Clinical Dietician, Registered Dietician, Registered Dietitian

Tasks

  • Monitor food service operations to ensure conformance to nutritional, safety, sanitation and quality standards.
  • Assess nutritional needs, diet restrictions and current health plans to develop and implement dietary-care plans and provide nutritional counseling.
  • Advise patients and their families on nutritional principles, dietary plans and diet modifications, and food selection and preparation.
  • Counsel individuals and groups on basic rules of good nutrition, healthy eating habits, and nutrition monitoring to improve their quality of life.
  • Consult with physicians and health care personnel to determine nutritional needs and diet restrictions of patient or client.​​
EducationM​ost of these occupations require graduate school. For example, they may require a master's degree, and some require a Ph.D., M.D., or J.D. (law degree).
Related ExperienceExtensive skill, knowledge, and experience are needed for these occupations. Many require more than five years of experience. For example, surgeons must complete four years of college and an additional five to seven years of specialized medical training to be able to do their job.
Job TrainingEmployees may need some on-the-job training, but most of these occupations assume that the person will already have the required skills, knowledge, work-related experience, and/or training.
Job Zone ExamplesThese occupations often involve coordinating, training, supervising, or managing the activities of others to accomplish goals. Very advanced communication and organizational skills are required. Examples include librarians, lawyers, astronomers, biologists, clergy, surgeons, and veterinarians.

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Computer Programmer
Create, modify, and test the code, forms, and script that allow computer applications to run. Work from specifications drawn up by software developers or other individuals. May assist software developers by analyzing user needs and designing software solutions. May develop and write computer programs to store, locate, and retrieve specific documents, data, and information.

Sample of reported job titles: Programmer Analyst, Programmer, Analyst Programmer, Computer Programmer, Software Developer, Applications Developer, Computer Programmer Analyst, Internet Programmer, Java Developer, Web Programmer

Tasks

  • Correct errors by making appropriate changes and rechecking the program to ensure that the desired results are produced.
  • Conduct trial runs of programs and software applications to be sure they will produce the desired information and that the instructions are correct.
  • Write, update, and maintain computer programs or software packages to handle specific jobs such as tracking inventory, storing or retrieving data, or controlling other equipment.
  • Write, analyze, review, and rewrite programs, using workflow chart and diagram, and applying knowledge of computer capabilities, subject matter, and symbolic logic.
  • Perform or direct revision, repair, or expansion of existing programs to increase operating efficiency or adapt to new requirements.
  • Consult with managerial, engineering, and technical personnel to clarify program intent, identify problems, and suggest changes.
  • Perform systems analysis and programming tasks to maintain and control the use of computer systems software as a systems programmer.
  • Compile and write documentation of program development and subsequent revisions, inserting comments in the coded instructions so others can understand the program.
  • Prepare detailed workflow charts and diagrams that describe input, output, and logical operation, and convert them into a series of instructions coded in a computer language.
  • Consult with and assist computer operators or system analysts to define and resolve problems in running computer programs.

 

TitleJob Zone Four: Considerable Preparation Needed
EducationMost of these occupations require a four-year bachelor's degree, but some do not.
Related ExperienceA considerable amount of work-related skill, knowledge, or experience is needed for these occupations. For example, an accountant must complete four years of college and work for several years in accounting to be considered qualified.
Job TrainingEmployees in these occupations usually need several years of work-related experience, on-the-job training, and/or vocational training.
Job Zone ExamplesMany of these occupations involve coordinating, supervising, managing, or training others. Examples include accountants, sales managers, database administrators, teachers, chemists, environmental engineers, criminal investigators, and special agents.

 

Mechanical Engineer
Perform engineering duties in planning and designing tools, engines, machines, and other mechanically functioning equipment. Oversee installation, operation, maintenance, and repair of equipment such as centralized heat, gas, water, and steam systems.

Sample of reported job titles: Mechanical Engineer, Design Engineer, Product Engineer, Mechanical Design Engineer, Process Engineer, Equipment Engineer, Design Maintenance Engineer, Systems Engineer, Chassis Systems Engineer, Commissioning Engineer

Tasks

  • Read and interpret blueprints, technical drawings, schematics, or computer-generated reports.
  • Assist drafters in developing the structural design of products using drafting tools or computer-assisted design (CAD) or drafting equipment and software.
  • Research, design, evaluate, install, operate, and maintain mechanical products, equipment, systems and processes to meet requirements, applying knowledge of engineering principles.
  • Confer with engineers or other personnel to implement operating procedures, resolve system malfunctions, or provide technical information.
  • Recommend design modifications to eliminate machine or system malfunctions.
  • Conduct research that tests or analyzes the feasibility, design, operation, or performance of equipment, components, or systems.
  • Investigate equipment failures and difficulties to diagnose faulty operation, and to make recommendations to maintenance crew.
  • Develop and test models of alternate designs and processing methods to assess feasibility, operating condition effects, possible new applications and necessity of modification.
  • Develop, coordinate, or monitor all aspects of production, including selection of manufacturing methods, fabrication, or operation of product designs.
  • Specify system components or direct modification of products to ensure conformance with engineering design and performance specifications.

 

TitleJob Zone Four: Considerable Preparation Needed
EducationMost of these occupations require a four-year bachelor's degree, but some do not.
Related ExperienceA considerable amount of work-related skill, knowledge, or experience is needed for these occupations. For example, an accountant must complete four years of college and work for several years in accounting to be considered qualified.
Job TrainingEmployees in these occupations usually need several years of work-related experience, on-the-job training, and/or vocational training.
Job Zone ExamplesMany of these occupations involve coordinating, supervising, managing, or training others. Examples include accountants, sales managers, database administrators, teachers, chemists, environmental engineers, criminal investigators, and special agents.

 

Risk Management Specialist

Analyze and manage risk management issues by identifying, measuring, and making decisions on operational or enterprise risks for an organization.

Sample of reported job titles: Risk Management Director, Chief Risk Officer, Risk Manager, Credit Risk Management Director, Global Risk Management Director, Risk and Insurance Consultant

Tasks

  • Document, and ensure communication of, key risks.
  • Maintain input or data quality of risk management systems.
  • Recommend ways to control or reduce risk.
  • Identify key risks and mitigating factors of potential investments, such as asset types and values, legal and ownership structures, professional reputations, customer bases, or industry segments.
  • Devise systems and processes to monitor validity of risk modeling outputs.
  • Gather risk-related data from internal or external resources.
  • Identify and analyze areas of potential risk to the assets, earning capacity, or success of organizations.
  • Develop or implement risk-assessment models or methodologies.
  • Produce reports or presentations that outline findings, explain risk positions, or recommend changes.
  • Plan, and contribute to development of, risk management systems.

 

TitleJob Zone Four: Considerable Preparation Needed
EducationMost of these occupations require a four-year bachelor's degree, but some do not.
Related ExperienceA considerable amount of work-related skill, knowledge, or experience is needed for these occupations. For example, an accountant must complete four years of college and work for several years in accounting to be considered qualified.
Job TrainingEmployees in these occupations usually need several years of work-related experience, on-the-job training, and/or vocational training.
Job Zone ExamplesMany of these occupations involve coordinating, supervising, managing, or training others. Examples include accountants, sales managers, database administrators, teachers, chemists, environmental engineers, criminal investigators, and special agents.